Inaccurate articles in journals


Example 2:  Vascular plants, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India (published 2012 - available online)

This article provides a supposed 'check-list' of the vascular plants of Kinnaur district situated in the Western Himalaya.  The authors state that 27 (3%) of the species they recorded from this district are placed under IUCN threatened categories. Whilst 108 (c.12%) being 'endemic' to the Western Himalaya (those not reading the article carefully might think they meant 'endemic' to Kinnaur').  My immediate reaction, without reading the article, let alone scrutinising it, was one of disbelief that so many were actually threatened or endemic!  Who decided this? On what evidence?  It could not possibly be as a result of the authors' study alone. I know for a fact that many of the species they claim to be 'endangered' are no such thing - in some cases being widespread and abundant!  Such false, un-scientific and downright silly claims continue to be repeated, time after time.  Are there no local botanists who realise that the flora of the Western Himalaya has not been studied sufficiently to judge which species are rare, let alone 'endangered'!?  I dispute pretty much every claim made in the article! It is a shame that I am obliged to find so much fault as the authors are to be commended for actually collecting pressed specimens, especially of grasses (Poaceae), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Pteridophyta) - families which are often neglected or ignored due to identification difficulties.

As to endemics (Indian botanists do love to refer to 'endangered'/'threatened' plants and 'endemics'), I cannot but wonder if the authors fully understand what the terms mean?  My understanding is that endemic means "unique to a certain defined geographical area''. But unless Indian botanists have up-to-date (reliable) information on the presence (or not) of said species in bordering countries such as China, Pakistan, Nepal (and other parts of the world) and these countries have detailed floras (which they often do not), then how on earth can the authors of this and numerous other articles know a species is unique, in this case to the 'Western' (i.e. 'Indian' Western Himalaya)?  I do not consider Nepal part of the 'Western' Himalaya - very much part of the 'Central' Himalaya to my thinking.  I think it is over-simplistic to split Himalayan flora into just 'Western' and 'Eastern', though I do accept that the main part of West Nepal has a flora with affinities to the W.Himalaya.  I consider what is now 'Uttarakhund' may be best classified as part of 'Central Himalaya', limiting 'Western' or perhaps 'North-Western' Himalaya to Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh (though this State is the most north-westerly point for some Himalayan species) plus perhaps bordering areas of Pakistan. The extreme East of Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan would be within my understanding of 'Eastern Himalaya'.  But I do not count the mountains of SW China as part of the proper 'Himalaya' anymore than the Karakoram range is in Pakistan (let alone the Hindu Kush).   So, perhaps a different definition of what constitutes the 'Western' Himalaya has been applied - though there are still species definitely found elsewhere, which are thus not endemics!

My reference works inform me that many of the species they classify as endemic are not or questionably so. The most glaring examples are Epilobium latifolium (which is an out-of-date name, it is now Chamerion latifolium). Known as 'dwarf fireweed' or 'river beauty willowherb', it has a circumboreal distribution throughout the northern regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including subarctic and Arctic areas such as snowmelt-flooded gravel bars and talus; there is also its inconvenient occurrence in Nepal (which certainly is not part of the 'Western Himalaya'); I know of it personally from Alaska. Also., 'Chickweed' (Stellaria media) - a cosmopolitan weed of waste and cultivated ground found in many parts of the world. Oh dear, such woeful mistakes create a bad impression and makes me suspicious about ALL the information provided in this article. Some of the content must be accurate but it makes you wonder.... I have now checked each claim of 'endemism'; in at least 10 cases the species are so difficult to distinguish from related ones, it is impossible to meaningfully assess their distribution.  I cannot find a total of 108 species listed as 'endemic' but of those I could check, AT LEAST 69 are known to occur elsewhere in the Himalaya, Afghanistan or other parts of the world! A mere 16, based on present evidence are endemic (a further 10 might prove to be) - so I make that somewhere between 1.5-2.4 %, rather different to c. 12%! This really is unacceptable - how can anyone make errors for almost two thirds of those claimed. Inexcusable for anyone, let alone a trained scientist.  Grossly misleading because others will read the article, assume it to be accurate and then make FALSE claims about the high levels of endemism in the Western Himalaya....  If you then add in the FACT that the check-list does not represent anywhere near the full number of species in Kinnaur.

May I state categorically that the 881 species they list DOES NOT represent a meaningful check-list for Kinnaur.  MANY species were overlooked, in particular those from higher elevations (which do not appear to have been surveyed much - there are e.g. many high passes @ 4500-5200m in the Baspa Valley but only two have been partially explored) and I doubt very much if the steep slopes which involve a lot of physical stamina to explore, let alone those requiring field botanists to scramble amongst boulders and negotiate cliff faces, were searched sufficiently. I would estimate that literally hundreds of other species occur in Kinnaur but nobody actually knows for sure. I shall start to accumulate a list to prove my point, starting with those from the sources mentioned in the next paragraph, which may run to dozens by themselves.... How can you have a check-list when at least  1/4, perhaps even 1/3 or 1/2 of the total are missing! Their study site of Kinnaur represent some 6,400 square kms!

A quick reference to species observed myself during a visit to Baspa Valley, Kinnaur in 1993 (which included Chamerion latifolium) and the travels of Margaret & Henry Taylor plus treks organised by the UK Alpine Garden Society along with some of the species I can recollect which were found by Tsongpen Lepcha, who was sent to Kinnaur in 1940, primarily to search for Primula obtusifolia, reveal quite a number the team who complied their check-list failed to locate including the little matter of 7 species of Primula: P.munroi, P.elliptica, P.minutissima, P.matthiolii, P.stuartii, P.obtusifolia, P.reptans!  Just what is going on?

To claim to be able to have produced a meaningful check-list after a single, all-too-brief visit to such a vast mountainous area is misleading, at the very least.  It is a pity that I am obliged to be so critical about this article (but I must speak the truth), as this team did actually collect voucher pressed specimens, which were, it seems from a casual glance (we are not told how many) reliably identified (some mistakes were made) by staff at a major herbarium in India.  Often voucher pressed specimens are not gathered during surveys of flora in the Western Himalaya - for Indian scientists with no proper training as to how to identify plants, to rely upon 'matching' what they found with out-of-date descriptions in Hooker's 'Flora of British India' (published in the 19th century), assorted lists of dubious reliability or with small photos in 'Flowers of the Himalaya' is likely to lead to numerous misidentifications. This, regrettably seems to be what normally happens. It is a situation which needs to change. Local botanists need to take pride in the quality and reliability of the information they publish - bearing in mind that others then TRUST and uncritically copy, refer to and cite what is published..... The very CREDIBILITY of Indian botany is at stake...

However, the main purpose of this account is not to highlight the overall shortcomings of this article (or very poor standard of plant identification typically performed on Himalayan flora) but to address the issue of the species the authors found in Kinnaur which they claim are 'Endangered' along with claims of endemism (meaning only found in a certain district, region or country).  

MISTAKES  you will notice that most species which the article's authors claim to be 'vulnerable' are described within 'Flowers of the Himalaya' - a guide to the COMMON
and prominent plants of the region! 

Acer caesium - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' described this as "common" in forests and open grassy places @ 2200-3000m from Afghanistan to Central Nepal. Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) says it is "our commonest maple, often ascending to near the treeline" (referring to Pakistan and Kashmir.  I have observed it many times in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. There is nothing to suggest that the occurrence of this species has substantially reduced in recent years.  Whoever came up with the idea that this tree is in any way vulnerable clearly does not know what they are talking about!  Perhaps it was decided in an office, "on paper only" because nobody, like myself, who has field experience would make such a suggestion.  As to its supposed 'endemism' in the Western Himalaya?  It is recorded from both Afghanistan and Nepal - these countries do not form part of the Western Himalaya.

Betula utilis - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' described this as forming forests at upper limit of tree growth @ 2700-4300m from Pakistan to SW China. Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) says it is "very common from Chitral eastwards" (referring to Pakistan and Kashmir.  I have observed it many times in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh also in Nepal. Whilst Stewart did observe that overgrazing has destroyed the species in many places so that in such districts it is now only on steep rocky inaccessible slopes but there are plenty of those along the Himalaya so to suggest the species as a whole is in any way 'Endangered' shows a complete lack of understanding. Stewart considered it to be a species aggregate which varies greatly, changing gradually as one goes from west to east.  Varieties and, I think, subspecies, have been recognised. For a check-list not to refer to variation within species is remiss.

Allium stracheyi - Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) correctly observed that the genus Allium is well represented in the dry regions along the Afghan frontier and in the high, dry inner mountains of Chitral, Gilgit, Baltistan etc. They are sometimes abundant enough to be collected for food but many of the species are poorly represented in herbarium collections.  Although the bulbs are often essential for identification they are often left behind by collectors.  The genus requires more attention and there may even be unidentified species.  As the reference material available is so minimal, the genus neglected by most botanists and is need of revision in the Western Himalaya what one can say about most species is highly provisional - the truth is that we just do not fully know about the status of Allium stracheyi or most other spp. - so neither I nor anyone else is in a position to judge whether it is 'vulnerable' or not.  This article lists 4 other species of Allium. It would be reasonable to suggest they missed others.  As for A.stracheyi, Stewart recorded it from Gilgit, Swat, Baltistan, Kashmir, stating it had pale yellow flowers with long stamens.  Nothing to suggest this was more 'vulnerable' than several other species likely to be found in Kinnaur....

Ferula jaeschkeana - Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) found this to be common on open hillsides @ 1200-2700m in Chitral, Gilgit, Swat, Hazara and Kashmir.  I have seen it in Lahoul, Himchal Pradesh.  Again, nothing to suggest it is 'vulnerable'.

Heracleum lanatum - Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) did not know this species from Pakistan or Kashmir. There is no mention in Hooker's 'Flora of British India'.  A quick search on the internet suggests this species is a NATIVE OF NORTH AMERICA'S PACIFIC NORTHWEST!  I was not aware it has become an invasive weed in the Western Himalaya but even if it has being a non-native weed surely does not qualify it for 'vulnerable' status!  More likely it has been misidentified....  The family, Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) to which Heracleum belongs is a challenging one identification-wise, in need of revision, with poor reference specimens. A major mistake I suspect.

Heracleum pinnatum - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' described this as "common" on field verges in Ladakh, from Pakistan to Himachal Pradesh @ 3000-4500m on rocky slopes in drier areas. Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded this from Gilgit, Astor, Baltistan, Ladkh, Kashmir and Kishtwar @ 2700-3900.   Nothing to suggest this is more 'vulnerable' than several other species of Apiaceae likely to be found in Kinnaur....

Selinum vaginatum - I have found this a very difficult genus identification-wise; it is clearly in need of revision, so I question the reliability of the characteristics used by the authors to distinguish between this and the two other species they record: Selinum coniifolium and S.wallichianum.  Given this situation it is impossible to assess accurately to status of any species belonging to this genus within the Western Himalaya.  The author claim this is 'endemic and lower risk/least concern - a category that applies to ALL plants in the world other than those classified as vulnerable or endangered, making it utterly meaningless'.  At present I do not know what S.coniifolium actually is? I have come across a preliminary revision of the genus Selinum in the Sino-Himalayan region which I shall study when time permits but it seems there remains much difference of opinion as to how to treat Selinium and related genera.

Polygonatum multiflorum 'Flowers of the Himalaya' described this as " quite common" in forests from Pakistan to Uttaranachal @ 1500-2700m. Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded this as "common" from Kurram, Swat, Hazara, Poonch & Kashmir @ 1500-2700m. Again, nothing to suggest it is 'vulnerable'.

Polygonatum verticillatum 'Flowers of the Himalaya' noted this in forests, shrubberies & on open slopes from Pakistan to SE Tibet @ 1500-3700m. Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded this, in places very common, from Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Gilgit, Baltistan, Poonch, Hazara, Poonch & Kashmir @ 1800-3300m. Again, nothing to suggest it is 'vulnerable'.

Berberis pseudoumbellata - this is a very difficult genus identification-wise, making it impossible to assess status and whether a particular species is 'endemic' or not. A full revision of the genus in the Western Himalaya is required.   Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded this from Poonch, Hazara, & Kashmir (where he found it to be common) @ 1200-2700m. Again, nothing to suggest it is 'vulnerable'.

Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (syn. Podophyllum hexandrum) 'Flowers of the Himalaya' recorded this from forests & on open slopes from Afghanistan to SW China @ 2400-4500m. Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded this as "very common" in thin forest from Kurram, Swat, Hazara, Poonch, Zanskar & Kashmir @ 1800-3600m. I have seen this plant from Bhutan to Kashmir including Ladakh & Lahoul. It is remarkably resilient in forest at Gulmarg in Kashmir despite incredible trampling pressure by hundreds of thousands of Indian tourists who walk and ride through the forest following construction of a ski-lift.  To describe such this species is 'critically' endangered and list it under CITES is seriously misleading!

Jurinea dolmiaea (syn. J.macrocephala) - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record it on open slopes from Pakistan to East Nepal @ 3000-4300m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) described this as "gregarious" on alpine meadows from Gilgit, Baltistan, Ladakh, Hazara, Poonch, Kashmir & Kishtwar @ 3500-4600m. Again, nothing to suggest it is 'vulnerable'.

Saussurea costus (S.lappa) - it is remarkable how many places this supposedly 'critically' endangered species is found (quite apart from it being grown in vast quantities in Lahoul). 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record it as cultivated as a field crop and also found as a casual in irrigated areas from Pakistan to Himachal Pradesh @ 2000-3300m. They observed that in Lahoul it had largely been replaced by potatoes which are more profitable (but it was certainly making a come back in 2012 - though only a fraction of the quantity of Inula racemosa).  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded this from Hazara, Astor and in forest undergrowth in Kashmir @ 2000-3000m. 'Kuth' was known at one time to be a valuable forest product until trade with China was stopped. To describe such this species is 'critically' endangered and list it under CITES is seriously misleading!

Saussurea obvallata - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record it rocky slopes & streamsides from Pakistan to SW China @ 3600-4500m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded it from Baltistan, though correctly observed it was usually found east of Kashmir. I wonder if this was misidentified as I know that some forms of Saussurea bracteata have been mistaken for S.obvallata. Difficult to accurately assess its status as few botanists spend much time high in the mountains where this plant grows.

Saussurea roylei - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record it as "quite common" in shrubberies & on open slopes from Kashmir to Central Nepal @ 3000-4300m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) described this as "common on passes and high alpine meadows" in Kashmir and from from Deosai, Baltistan, Ladakh @ 3600-4700m. Quite why its status should be given as "indeterminate", when no other species the team recorded was described as such is a mystery to me?

Dioscorea deltoidea - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' do not include this species - not because they would have considered it rare but it is not attractive.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) described this as " our only common species of Dioscorea" from Kurram, Chitral, Dir, Swat, Poonch & Kashmir @ 700-2700m. It is common in the Kulu Valley, Himachal Pradesh. To describe such this species is 'rare & endangered', listing it under CITES is seriously misleading!

Rhododendron anthopogon  - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record it as "common & gregarious" in alpine shrubberies & on open slopes from Pakistan to SE Tibet @ 3000-4800m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) described this as "gregarious & very common on passes in the alpine zone" in Astor, Gilgit, Baltistan, Hazara & Zanskar @ 2850-4500m; in Kashmir he found it to be abundant on high meadows above Rhododendron campanulatumTo list this as 'vulnerable' is preposterous!  I don't expect the person who originally claimed this has spent much time above 4000m in the Western Himalaya!

Indigofera cedororum - I cannot find any reference to this beyond its supposed use medicinally!  Is this a species which has been described as 'new' in recent years?

Dactylorhiza hatagirea - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record it as "common" in shrubberies, on open slopes & marshes from Pakistan to S.E. Tibet @ 2800-4000m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) described the 'Broad-Leaved Marsh Orchid' as common in wet marshy places above 2100m in Kurram, Chitral, Swat, Astor, Baltistan, Ladakh, Hazara and as "abundant" in Kashmir @ 2400-3600m. I first came across this growing in irrigated areas in Suru Valley, Ladakh.  Yes, the tubers are used medicinally.  Yes, it is collected illegally by Indians but to suggest it is 'critically' endangered i.e. about to become extinct is incorrect.

Meconopsis aculeata - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record this as "widespread" on rocky slopes & damp rocks, Pakistan to Uttranachal @ 3000-4000m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded the 'The Western Blue Poppy' from among rocks or on cliffs in Hazara, Zanskar and Kashmir @ 3300-4500m. I first came across it on cliffs in Kashmir - which required a scramble to reach. I doubt very much if the person who claims this is 'vulnerable' has ever been up such cliffs.  It is widespread in Himachal Pradesh. I have seen it in Lahoul.  Unless it is in flower, one needs to look closely between boulders and on cliffs but it is there by the million - as few would get anywhere near its main habitats, I consider it ridiculous to express concern about its status.

Picrorhiza kurrooa  - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record this from rocky slopes & damp rocks, Pakistan to Uttranachal @ 3300-4300m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) recorded this in Hazara and Kashmir (where he found it to be "common on alpine meadows" @ 300-4300m. I have found it widespread in Himachal Pradesh. I see no reason why it should be considerable to be 'endangered' - it has been collected for medicinal use for centuries. It is an old Indian remedy for colds & flu.  Koelz reported in the 1930s that wherever it grew in the mountains (in Lahoul & Kulu Valley), Tibetans and Rampuris made a business of collecting it - there encampments being found in the summer months. There is nothing to suggest the amount of collection has increased in more recent times.

Rheum australe - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record this on open slopes from Himachal Pradesh to East Nepal @ 3000-4200m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) never came across it in Pakistan or Kashmir.  I have found Rheums not always simple to distinguish between the different species - though R.australe would seem distinctive enough.  I have insufficient information to assess its status in the Western Himalaya.  But as it is more common in Nepal, then surely the most important issue is its status in the Himalaya as a whole.

Aconitum heterophyllum - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record this in forests, shrubberies & open grassy slopes from Pakistan to Central Nepal @ 2400-4000m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) found this to be common in Chitral, Deosai, Astor, Swat, Hazara, Poonch & Kashmir @ 2140-3600m. I have found it to be common in Himachal Pradesh. Yes, it is collected for medicinal usage. I do not know what the evidence there is that the species is vulnerable.  As it is found in Nepal it is not endemic to the Western Himalaya.

Aconitum violaceum - 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record this in forests, shrubberies & open grassy slopes from Pakistan to Central Nepal @ 2400-4000m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) found this to be common in Kashmir near streams or in damp soil (he recognised a var. robustum from alpine meadows) also in Chitral, Deosai, Ladakh & Kashmir @ 3000-4500m. I have found it to be common in Himachal Pradesh. Yes, it is collected for medicinal usage. I do not know what the evidence there is that the species is vulnerable.  As it is found in Nepal it is not endemic to the Western Himalaya.  As Aconites can be difficult to identify, I wonder as to the reliability of some records for all species of this genus in the Western Himalaya.

Saxifraga jacquemontiana 'Flowers of the Himalaya' record this on stony slopes in drier areas from  Pakistan to SE Tibet @ 4000-5200m.  Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) records this from Gilgit, Deosai, Baltistan, Hazara. Ladakh & Kashmir @ 3600-4800m. I have found it to be widespread in Kashmir, Ladakh & Himachal Pradesh. To suggest it is 'endangered' is ridiculous - I don't expect the person(s) claiming this have spent much time @ 4000m in the Western Himalaya let alone 5000m! I would assess it to be abundant at suitable elevations!

Ulmus wallichiana - Stewart (the most knowledgeable field botanist Pakistan ever had) found the 'Big Leaved Elm' to be found in Swat, Hazara, Poonch & Kashmir often in moist ravines @ 1800-3000m. It is recorded from Nepal, so is not endemic to the Western Himalaya.  Its occurrence is not sufficiently well-known to meaningfully judge its status.

ENDEMICS IN WESTERN HIMALAYA

According to this article, 108 of the species recorded are ONLY FOUND IN THE WESTERN HIMALAYA.  My first impressions were that this was unlikely to be the case. Let me check each one and see how many this description applies to, indicating the incorrect ones and those which one cannot be certain about due to taxonomic difficulties:

Not Endemic in Western Himalaya

1.    Acer caesium
2.    Aconitum heterophyllum
3.    Aconitum violaceum
4.    Agrostis munroana
5.    Alnus nitida
6.    Arceuthobium minutissimum
7.    Artemisia japonica
8.    Artemisia roxburghiana
9.    Aster falconeri
10.    Berberis chitria
11.    Berberis coriaria
12.    Berberis  jaeschkeana
13.    Berberis lycium
14.    Bergenia ciliata (Western Himalayan forms of this species are now Bergenia pacumbis)
15.    Bupleurum falcatum
16.    Buxus wallichiana
17.    Capparis spinosa
18.    Carex haematostoma
19.    Carpesium nepalense
20.    Cirsium wallichii
21.    Codonopsis rotundifolia
22.    Corydalis govaniana
23.    Corylus jacquemontii
24.    Cyananthus lobatus
25.    Delphinium denudatum
26.    Delphinium vestitum
27.    Dipsacus inermis
28.    Epilobium latifolium
29.    Eremurus himalaicus
30.    Eritrichium nanum
31.    Fraxinus xanthoxyloides
32.    Geum elatum (syn. Acomastylis elata)
33.    Ilex dipyrena
34.    Juglans regia
35.    Hippophae salicifolia
36,    Lactuca dolichophylla
37.    Lonicera spinosa
38.    Morus serrata
39.    Oxytropis mollis
40.    Pedicularis pectinata
41.    Pimpinella acuminata
42.    Pleurospermum brunonis
43.    Potentilla multifida
44.    Primula floribunda
45.    Primula sessilis
46.    Quercus baloot
47.    Quercus floribunda
48.    Quercus leucotrichophora
49.    Rheum webbianum
50.    Rhodiola imbricata
51.    Rosa macrophylla
52.    Salix denticulata
53.    Sarcococca saligna (syn. S.pruniformis)
54.    Scrophularia koelzii
55.    Selinum tenuifolium (syn. S.wallichianum)
56.    Serratula pallida
57.    Silene edgeworthii (syn. S.indica var. edgeworthii)
58.    Silene falconeriana
59.    Skimmia anquetilia
60.    Sophora mollis
61.    Stellaria media - a cosmopolitan weed of cultivated ground and waste places (incl. my garden), so to claim it to be 'endemic'....
62.    Thalictrum foetidum (syn. T.minus)
63.    Tricholepis elongata
64.    Trigonella pubescens (syn. Medicago edgeworthii)
65.    Ulmus wallichiana
66.    Valeriana stracheyi
67.    Vicia bakeri

Misidentification

Iris hookeriana - almost certainly 68.  Iris kemaonensis
Parthenocissus semicordata - this has only been recorded from West Nepal eastwards; strangely the widespread  69. P.himalayana is not
recorded by the team from Kinnaur, which surely is what they collected a specimen of 

Out-of-date name which does not relate to current species

Clematis orientalis

A synonym for another species on their check-list

Myriactis wallichii (syn. M.wallichii)

Not recorded from the Himalaya at all

Heracleum lanatum

Not previously recorded from Kinnaur

Berberis coriaria

Difficult to separate from closely-related species - so impossible to assess if 'endemic'

1.    Allium stracheyi
2.    Artemisia indica var. elegantissima
3.    Berberis kunawurensis
4.    Berberis pseudo-umbellata
5.    Bupleurum jucundum
6.    Cotoneaster obovata
7.    Saussurea caespitose
8.    Saussurea ceratocarpa
9.    Saussurea glanduligera
9.    Selinum vaginatum
10.  Strobilanthes wallichii




























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